Monthly Archives: December 2021

Holiday-Themed Constructs

Look, maybe you want to run a fantasy ttRPG with giant animated fruitcake warriors… and maybe you’ll just get a giggle out of my actually taking this topic seriously. But if you want to reskin some class iron, clay, and stone constructs (or any construct-type creature) into holiday-themed materials, here are some options for powers to add based on the holiday material used.

Figgy Pudding/Fruitcake: Take half damage from bludgeoning attacks. Are sticky, so they gain a climb speed.

Gingerbread: As almost 2-d, flexible creatures, they can get through spaces a creature 2 size classes smaller could, without taking any penalties. Any fire damage sets them on fire, both damaging them and causing their attacks to do fire damage.

Holly: Anyone hit by the construct, or adjacent to it for a full round, must make a mental save or move towards the person present they would be most interested in kissing (though once they take that move, all compulsion stops).

Hot Cocoa: Gains all the powers of both a fire elemental and a water elemental of the same threat level. takes double damage from bite attacks.

Peppermint: These constructs are “curiously strong.” Tracking them by scent is easy, but they cover all other scents, and after being in an enclosed space for a minute, scent can no longer pinpoint their exact location with that space.

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Relic Framework Concept: Rochambeau

When worldbuilding, sometimes you want to create a relic framework–that is, a set of rules and and concepts that guide how a specific type of important objects function and interact. This might be ancient rings of power (one of which binds them all in darkness), whispering keys (which perhaps have a special connection to one family line), conceptual stones that if gathered can change the entire universe, color-coded energy swords, alpha-class mecha no-one knows how to build anymore, or whatever.

This idea leaped into my head when I was contemplating such a set of relics, and trying to decide if I wanted to use them as narrative devices, McGuffins, elements of an RPG (ShadowFinders, maybe? Or my long-dusty StrangeFinder Modern ideas?), or whatever. But without knowing where I am going to put it yet, this has grown to be taking enough headspace I need to jot the ideas down so I can move on with other projects.

The Throws

Sometimes, the forces of the universe imbue an object with extraordinary power, thrown off from the normal processes of being a universe. Known as a “throw” the form of a throw may impact what it can do (a wasp trapped in a hunk of amber that can be used to summon a swarm of wasps), or might be utterly unrelated (a book of sonnets that teleports anyone hit in the head with it to a random bus station in Poughkeepsie).

Throws come in three categories.

Rock: Not always mineral, rocks are always unworked, natural objects, often stones but they could also be leftover plant matter, a liquid, a salt, amber, and so on. Most rocks are about the size of a child’s fist, though much larger and smaller exceptions exist. Rocks’ powers tend to center around raw creation or destruction on a powerful but crude scale. A rock’s powers are weak against a paper throw, and strong against a scissor throw. A rock is the only thing that can destroy a scissor, and a paper is the only thing that can destroy a rock.

Paper: Paper throws are always objects that hold knowledge, and are almost always manmade. A book, cassette tape, clay tablet, vinyl record, and knotted accounting cord are all possible papers, though in rare cases something like the cross-section of a tree showing the environments impacts on it over centuries could become a paper. Paper throws tend to have powers focused on evolution, change, and to a lesser extent knowledge. A paper’s powers are weak against a scissor throw, and strong against a rock throw. A scissor is the only thing that can destroy a paper, and a paper is the only thing that can destroy a rock.

Scissor: Scissors are always something created by the action of a living thing, but they are not all man-made. While tools, weapons, clothes, and furniture are all common scissors, so are bird nests, honeycomb, and beaver dams. Scissors’ powers are generally about applied force, ranging from destruction to heating, cooling, carving, and even assembling and forging things. A scissor’s powers are weak against a rock throw, and strong against a paper throw. A scissor is the only thing that can destroy a paper, and a rock is the only thing that can destroy a scissor.

So, this leaves us with a word where people seek relics for specific purposes, but every relic is also a potential weapon against one class of throw, and vulnerable to the other class of throw.

Now, what to DO with such a framework is a much broader question.

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Mountain Dew Cake and Mountain Dew Pie

Look, I’m not in charge of the Mountain Dew-to-Gamers connection, but I do like playing with it. People specifically asked for these recipes when I noted I had made them, so…

Mountain Dew CAKE
1 box Duncan Hines Orange Supreme cake mix
1 box Jello instant pudding mix – lemon
4 eggs
1 teaspoon lime flavoring (or extract, I refer flavoring)
green food Coloring if desired, to your preferred neon hue
½ cup vegetable oil
1 cup Mountain Dew (fresh and fizzy)

GLAZE
1 cup sugar
1 stick butter
1/2 cup Mountain Dew

 Preheat oven to 325
 Liberally coat bunt pan with nonstick spray
 Add all cake ingredients together and beat for 2 minutes
 Pour into pan and bake 50-60 minutes at 325
 About 5 minutes before cake is done, make the glaze
 Add all glaze ingredients together in a sauce pan and boil for 2-3 minutes
 Once cake comes out, pour glaze slowly over cake
 Leave in pan for 20-30 minutes to let glaze soak in, or up to 24 hours in fridge
 Remove. Color will be much darker on the outside than within each slice.
 Enjoy

Mountain Dew PIE
This is NOT a cheesecake, but an effort at pure Mtn Dew as a pie filling.
1 frozen pie crust, in pan
2 liters Mountain Dew (to make 12 oz. Mountain Dew Reduction)
2/3 cup sugar
8 tbsp flour
6 tbsp butter, diced

 To make a Mtn Dew reduction, simmer 2 liters of Mtn Dew over medium heat, stirring occasionally, for 2-3 hours. You should reduce the volume by at least half, and up to 65% or so. It doesn’t matter if the Mtn Dew is fresh, since you’ll lose all the carbonation anyway.
 Preheat oven to 395
 Pour 12 oz of Mtn Dew reduction in the pie crust, while the crust is still frozen
 Mix the sugar and flour, then sprinkle the mix evenly over the surface of the Mtn Dew reduction. Yes, it’s powder on syrup.
 As best you can, scatter the diced butter evenly over the flour/sugar mix.
 Cover edges of crust with foil.
 Carefully move into over. Bake for 30 min.
 Reduce temp to 340, then bake for another 30 min.
 Remove from oven, and take off foil. Pie filling is now a hot sticky plasma, so be careful. Fully cool, preferably on a stone or tile countertop.
 Once fully cooled, chill covered in fridge for 6-24 hours.

(Reduced Mtn Dew. This was once 2 liters)
(Reduced Mtn Dew in frozen pie crust)
(Sprinkled sugar/flour mix over top, then diced butter)
(Foil)
(Done! And, Neon!)

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Converting PF1 spells to Starfinder: Abjuring Step

Still converting Pathfinder 1st edition spells to Starfinder, and going back to alphabetical order (unless a member of my Patreon asks for something be done out-of-order, as happened with the shield spell; which is a great reason to join my Patreon!), with abjuring step. (You can find an index of the spells that have been converted to-date here).

The PF1 version of abjuring step is all about casting spells and not provoking attacks of opportunity. It’s primarily designed to boost the effectiveness of spellcasters who do a lot of touch-range buffs, since those need to get up lose to combat to be effective. It mitigates that power by ending if you make an attack or move too far. Spells like that are less common in Starfinder (fewer buffs in general, and some touch range spells specify they don’t provoke, though there are a few such as supercharge weapon). Attacks of opportunity are also less of a threat, both because fewer things provke (only THREE things can provoke an AoO in Starfinder), and because there’s no mechanism to allow foes to make multiple AoOs in a round.

So, if we want abjuring step to stay a useful option, we either need to increase it’s utility, or we need to reduce its spell level. While we could make it a 0-level spell, that comes with an additional set of complications (as 0-level spells can be cast an unlimited number of times). So, to keep things simple, let’s see if we can’t make abjuring step powerful enough to be appealing as a 1st-level option.

This version allows attacks, and even encourages popping out from cover, shooting, and moving back into cover. But rather than prevent AoOs, it makes the first one taken against you fail, then ends the spell. This gives it broader utility even in a game with many fewer attacks of opportunity, and makes it of use for a broader range of spellcaster builds, but also prevents it from becoming immunity to AoOs for a whole battle with one casting of the spell.

(Art by roman3d)

Abjuring Step
Classes mystic 1, technomancer 1, witchwarper 1
School abjuration
Casting Time 1 standard action
Range personal
Duration 1 round/level
Abjuring step allows you to take a full action to make up to two guarded steps, and either cast a spell with a casting time of one standard action or make a single attack. You can take both guarded steps before or after the attack or spellcasting, or take one guarded step before and one after. If a foe makes an attack of opportunity against you, the attack automatically fails, but the abjuring step spell is dismissed.

Casting abjuring step does not provoke an attack of opportunity.

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An Open Reply to Erik Mona

Editorial note From Owen: Earlier this week I posted An Open Letter to Erik Mona, written by a freelancer I know who had asked me to post it. Erik replied almost immediately, outlining steps he was taking, and you can see his response as a comment to the original open letter. The open letter’s author asked that this response to Erik’s reply also be publicly posted, which I am doing now. If you haven’t already read the open letter and Erik’s swift reply, doing so before reading this will give needed context.

“I appreciate the swift response in addressing the raised concerns. I believe that removal of slavery from Golarion is an excellent step towards creating a welcoming and inclusive game. I hope that Paizo will work closely with African American writers and sensitivity consultants as they move forward with this change and beyond. I look forward to seeing what we can create.”

Converting PF1 spells to Starfinder: Abeyance

Still converting Pathfinder 1st edition spells to Starfinder, and going back to alphabetical order, with abeyance. (You can find an index of the spells that have been converted to-date here).

In Pathfinder 1st edition, abeyance allows you to temporarily suppress a spell you could remove with remove curse, but only once. It’s a pretty straightforward concept. There are a few tricks to getting this conversion right–you have to know that there’s no “remove curse” spell in Starfinder, it’s function being subsumed by the much broader remove affliction. (Interesting aside: ever wonder WHY we blended neutralize disease, remove curse, and remove disease into a single spell in Starfinder? It’s because since all spellcasters are spontaneous casters, rather than most being preparation-based as in PF1, and no class gets access to its entire spell list as spells known, as clerics and druids and many divine casters do in PF1, selecting a spell to remove affections that only show up in-game occasionally is a much bigger commitment. So making sure all afflictions can be handled by one spell makes it more likely it’ll be useful, and you never have to face selecting remove disease as a spell and then discovering you are in an adventure that only has curses and poisons).

So, we want to keep that design philosophy alive with abeyance, and we want to make sure our new spells is level-balanced and given to appropriate classes as a Starfinder option. You can detect afflictions as a 0-level spell, and being able to remove them is a 3rd level spell, so a once-only spell to suspend them temporarily (especially given the travel times involved in spaceships in Starfinder) is definitely a 1st-level spell, and likely one you only select once you are at least mid-level.

Abeyance
Classes mystic 1, witchwarper 1
School abjuration (healing)
Casting Time 1 minute
Range touch
Target creature touched
Duration 24 hours
Saving Throw Will negates (harmless); Spell Resistance yes (harmless)

Abeyance suppresses the effects of a single afflcition (a curse, disease, or poison) on a creature. It does not restore any damage or drain that might have been caused by the affliction. Abeyance cannot suppress afflictions that cannot be removed by remove affliction, but it can suppress afflictions such as lycanthropy that require remove affliction along with additional measures. Once an individual affliction has been suppressed only by abeyance, it cannot be suppressed by the spell again, even if its cast by a different caster. However, if an affliction is being actively suppressed by an abeyance, casting abeyance on that target against before the duration ends resets the duration for another 24 hours. It is possible to suspend an infliction indefinitely this way, as long as the duration is never allowed to run out.

Abeyance does not allow a creature to divest itself of cursed objects, though it can suppress a curse contracted from an object.

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Converting PF1 spells to Starfinder: The Shield Spell

So, back to converting Pf1 spells to Starfinder. (You can find an index of the spells that have been converted to-date here). A member of my Patreon asked I tackle the shield spell next, rather than wait until I got to it in alphabetical order, so here we go!

Shield is a fascinating example of a spell that is trickier to move from Pathfinder 1st edition to Starfinder that might first appear. Obviously the effects of the PF1 version can be translated directly–at least if you are using the Character Operations Manual, Starfinder has rules for shield bonuses to AC. But looking at the tighter math in Starfinder, and the fact that all spellcasters in that game have access to at least light armor, it becomes pretty clear a +4 bonus to AC as a 1st-level spell would be game-breakingly good.

So, some analysis is called for. Can we make a version of shield that is both true to the concept of the Pathfinder version (if not the exact numbers), and yet a viable option to add to Starfinder games without ruining anything? Well, let’s look at what shield does in Pathfinder, in a comparative context.

In Pathfinder 1st ed, the shield spell gives an advantage almost as great as a 1st-level character can get with the best shield (tower shield), but without any of the drawbacks (penalties to attack, weight, and so on) or as many options (no setting it down to gain total cover from weapon attacks). It also neutralizes magic missile, which is a minor point, but one worth remembering since we have magic missile in Starfinder.

So, seen in that light, it becomes clearer that a Starfinder-compatible version of shield needs to mimic what a a level 1 piece of equipment can do. Looking at 1st-level shields, that gives us a better idea of an appropriate power level for the spell. Of course, Starfinder also has tiered spells, so we can also make higher-spell-level versions of shield, if we are so inclined…

And I am.

(Art by Max_776)

Shield
Classes technomancer 1-6, witchwarper 1-6
School abjuration (force)
Casting Time 1 standard action
Range personal
Duration 1 min./level (D)
Shield creates an invisible shield of force that hovers in front of you. It grants you a shield bonus to AC, which may be higher if you align your shield against the foe as a move action (see aligning shields in Chapter 4 of the Character Operations Manual). Additionally, if you align a shield against an incorporeal or ethereal target the force effect of the shield grants you an additional +2 AC against that creature’s attacks.

Level 1: Shield bonus +0/+1. Additionally, you are immune to damage from magic missile while the shield spell is active.
Level 2: Shield bonus +1/+1. Additionally, you are immune to damage from all 1st level spells with the force descriptor.
Level 3: Shield bonus +1/+2. Additionally, you are immune to damage from all 2nd-level and lower spells with the force descriptor.
Level 4: Shield bonus +1/+3. Additionally, you are immune to damage from all 3rd-level and lower spells with the force descriptor.
Level 5: Shield bonus +1/+4. Additionally, you are immune to damage from all 4th-level and lower spells with the force descriptor.
Level 6: Shield bonus +2/+4. Additionally, you are immune to damage from all 5th-level and lower spells with the force descriptor.

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From a Freelancer: An Open Letter to Erik Mona

Editorial Note from Owen: As someone established in the industry, one of the things I have done before and expect I will do again is to post messages written by other people who, for whatever reason, aren’t in a position to make such posts themselves. This is one of those times. This letter was sent to me by a freelancer I know, and I am posting it for them, at their request.

A Letter to Erik Mona and Paizo

Pathfinder has a slavery problem. That is not something that I thought I would be writing at the close of 2021, but here we are. The fixation on slavery as an institution, as a “plot hook,” as a fixture in the world of Pathfinder is at times baffling and at times infuriating. Even as Black fans, players and writers express our outrage and discomfort over and over again, certain writers at Paizo continue to ignore us and use an awful source of pain as fodder for their entertainment. And while I would typically choose to call out the company as a whole rather than any particular individual, in this case I feel I have no choice.

In recent Pathfinder release, Lost Omens: Absalom, Erik Mona as credited as both the Development Lead and Editing Lead. It is a matter of public record that the long delay in the release Absalom was due to Mona’s extended time making changes that would take the book from its initial estimated 240 pages to a final page count of 402. In nearly every way that mattered, Erik Mona had creative control over what the final product would look like, and so he is the person I have to hold responsible.

Before I get into the specifics of the book, I do feel the need to provide some additional information so that everyone can understand why it feels like such a betrayal. And to do that I have to talk about the Pathfinder Society Organized Play program that allows players to jump into public, pre-organized games, often with people they may not know very well. Not to bury the lede, until recently, players in these publicly organized games were allowed to buy slaves.

If you’re wondering how that happened, it’s pretty straightforward. Somewhere, in some Pathfinder book, there were rules options that detailed the cost to purchase a slave – a perfectly legal practice in the fictional city of Absalom. Certain Paizo employees decide which books are allowed for Society, and the book with this option was one of the ones allowed. So, any player with access to that rule could then have their character buy another human being, and because there was no rule to disallow it, the gamemaster and other players at the table had no way to stop them.

You see, participating in Society play means that you agree to play by their rules. If you don’t like it, your only recourse by and large is to get up and leave the table. The only alternative is to get everyone to agree that the rule is wrong, and either collectively ignore it, or force Paizo’s hand to get them to change it. A group of players, mostly led by black voices, chose the latter. The official response? If players wanted slavery banned in Organized Play, then there had to be an in-game event that justified the abolition of slavery.

What a fucking hoop to jump through, right?

But it happened. Pathfinder Society Scenario #9-00: Assault on Absalom. An in-game event, requested by players, that led to the abolition of slavery. In one city. By conscripting the enslaved people to fight in a war and then giving freedom to the survivors. Way to trip forward over a very low bar.

And since then, other content has been published with a clear anti-colonialist, abolitionist agenda. Former colonies went through revolutions to free the colonized people and grant them independence. Other influential figures in the world are working to purge slavery from their own regions. Most freelancers and developers so desperately want to move forward and leave this awful shit behind. We want this to be a game that everyone can enjoy, that doesn’t trivialize Black pain or rely on shock value.

Then there’s Erik Mona and Absalom. There are 126 references to slaves and slavery in the 402 pages of Absalom. Some of them are just recounting history. Some of them are references to abolition and aiding free people. Several of them are graphic descriptions of “illegal” slavery, human trafficking, prison abuse, organized crime and all the various ways that Absalom tries to have it both ways. What a fucking slap in the face.

Things like this have happened too many times. At this point, I don’t think an apology is enough. I don’t think editing the book to remove the offending content is enough. My relationship with Paizo was already on shaky ground, and it continues to get shakier by the week. I don’t know what that will mean for my career, but it certainly means that my trust in the company, and any faith I might have had in Erik Mona are gone.

Converting PF1 spells to Starfinder

I’ve done it with feats. So, let’s look at converting Pathfinder 1st edition spells to Starfinder,

We’ll start with the first PF1 spell, if you put them all in alphabetical order, Ab@d@r’s Truthtelling (but, you know, without mentioning the name of the Product Identity-protected god). We’re only making on real change in this from the Pathfinder version… we’re restricting it to willing targets. The reason is that the spell specifically confirms those affect by it are under its effects, which makes it overly powerful for a 1st level spell (a caster can just keep spamming the spell on a captured target, for example), so dialing it back a bit seems appropriate.

Truthtelling [Mystic 1]

Schools Enchantment (compulsion, mind-affecting)
Casting Time 1 standard action
Components V, S, DF
Range touch
Target willing creature touched
Duration 1 min./level
Saving Throw Will negates; Spell Resistance yes

Description

This spell functions identically to the spell zone of truth, except as noted above. Not only does this spell only affect willing targets, creatures are aware of what the spell is a split second before it affects them, and may withdraw consent at that time if they wish (such as if they were told it is a healing spell, rather than truthtelling). An affected target momentarily takes on the semblance of a being of perfect order, like an archon or inevitable, so that all who can see the target know it is affected by the spell. This divine guise flickers over the target for only an instant and does not allow it to pass as a member of a different race.

Index

Here’s an index of the spells that have been converted (along with the class and spell level or levels) so far with this project.

Abeyance M1, W1
Abjuring Step M1, T1, W1
Ablative Barrier T2-6, W2-6
Ablative Sphere M3-6, T3-6
Absolution M4
Beguiling Emoji (Symbol of Persuasion) T6
Confusion Emoji (Symbol of Insanity) T6
Death Emoji (Symbol of Death) T6
Debauchery Emoji (Symbol of Debauchery) T6
Dispelling Emoji (Symbol of Dispelling) T6
Distracting Emoji (Symbol of Distraction) T4
Emergency Force Sphere T4, W4
Exsanguination Emoji (Symbol of Exsanguination) T3
Fear Emoji (Symbol of Fear) T4
Glyph Circuit (Glyph of Warding) M3, T3
Laugh Out Loud Emoji (Symbol of Laughter) T3
Mirror Emoji (Symbol of Mirroring) T2
Pain Emoji (Symbol of Pain) T5
Repair Emoji (Symbol of Healing) T3
Revealing Emoji (Symbol of Revealing) T5
Scrying Emoji (Symbol of Scrying) T5
ROFL – Roll On Floor Laughing (Hideous Laughter) T1
Shield T1-6, W1-6
Truthtelling M1

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The Limits of My Advice

People often seem to value my advice. From game design to life as a ttRPG freelancer to gmae buisness to destigmatizing mental health issues to being an ally, I am often asked to give my opion, offer context, brainstorm options and solutions. It seems weird to me, but people I trust tell me the advice is often useful, so I believe them. I am even so arrogant as to charge a (to my mind, extremely high) amount of money for a solid hour of professional advice.

But, there are significant limits to the value of my advice, and I would not want to present it in a way that suggests otherwise.

Firstly, all of my advice is born of my experiences, and as a hetero cis white man there are a lot of things I haven’t personally experienced. I do listen to people who are marginalized by the industry as much as I can, and tried to learn from what I see happen to them and what they tell me, but that’s still different than knowing from direct experience of what living through and dealing with those events are like. I have to guess how they may make people with different backgrounds and circumstances, and that’s always going to color how my advice applies to them.

I make an effort to be aware of this in various ways. First, there are numerous issues about which I know it’s more important for me to listen than to talk. Booting the voices of those directly affected is often appropriate in ways that given my own experience isn’t. And a big part of that is that I may not understand what the real issue is. If a woman is talking about having her name as author not be put on the front cover of a book, and I might feel it’s could be helpful to talk about times in which I fought to put my name on the front cover as author, and failed. But, due to context, there’s every chance it’s not the same. I’m on the front cover of tons of books, and there’s no systemic negative reaction to me being presented as a noteworthy game designer. I’ve seen co-workers, with the same job title I have, who don’t happen to be hetero cis white man, get announced as guests at game conventions only for multiple people to being casting aspersions that they’re only there as “woke virtue-signaling” or “diversity hires.”

That’s never happened to me. Not when i was first a guest at Gen Con, in 2000, with no solo book credits to my name. Not when I was a guest multiple times at SoonerCon, with nothing but magazine credits. Not when I was a guest at Comicpalooza in 2014 and being treated to the same level of green room care as James Marsters and Tricia Helfer. Anytime I am presented as an expert or noteworthy, people who have never heard of my before simply nod and accept it must be true. I have witnessed that absolutely not be the way people react when people of different backgrounds are presented as folks worth listening to and treating with respect.

Put another way, if I ask someone not to put something on the top shelf and they do, I can still reach it. If someone 5’2″ tall asks people not to put things on the top shelf and they do, they are NOT having the same experience I did.

Secondly (yeah, firstly was a long one), my advice tends to assume everyone you are dealing with is acting in good faith. Often when I talk about being kind, helping others, trying to build networks of allies, fans, and colleagues, someone will comment with a note “But also protect yourself!”

And they’re right.

I rarely have to protect myself from bad-faith actors trying to take advantage of me. It happens, but a lot of it is so obvious I easily sidestep it, and a lot of the ways it used to happen when I was less well-established just isn’t an issue anymore (due to changing technologies, changing industry norms, and so on). I’m more than 20 years into my career, and generally consider myself bulletproof in regards to reputation and recognition. That is NOT the case for everyone, and I’ve pretty well proven that if I am not explicitly discussing how to deal with bad actors, I’ll forget it can be critical context to add.

Thirdly… am more than 20 years into my careers. I am fairly well known in the small pool I wallow in. My advice may not be the best, most current look at how to get started, get better known, make contacts, build a following from the ground up, get paid more, and so on. I am often extended benefit-of-the-doubt, friends-and-family options, and professional courtesies other people aren’t. And I may not even know when that’s the case, causing my to blithely overlook how hard certain kinds of accommodations might be to get.

Fourthly, I tend to approach all industry-related questions from the point of view of a designer, developer, and publisher. I have much less experience as an artist, or editor, or sensitivity of cultural consultant. I also tend to focus on a specific kind of ttRPG game–much more d20 and Green Ronin’s AGE than Dread or Blades in the Dark, and even further from miniatures games, boardgames, cardgames, and even FURTHER from video games and novels. If you want to get the kind of work I do, I may have valuable suggestions and insights. If you want to become a big Hollywood movie script writer, I recommend finding more-closely-linked-in advisors. 🙂

Same thing applies to residence. My advise is U.S.A. focused.

There are, I am sure, other blind spots in my advice that I am, well, blind to. So, please, take anything I say with a grain of salt. Listen to people who come at these questions from different places in time and origin. Be aware that the game industry is a constantly-changing knot of interconnected companies, events, business needs, cultural trends, and changing best practices. I try hard to not be a dinosaur… but even if I know a giant comet is a risk, I’m often going to miss how non-dinosaur concerns could color the utility of my advice.

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Having taken ALL that space to warn you that I should never be more than one voice of many you listen to, I’m going to take the bold step of suggesting that if you DO want to keep hearing what i have to say, it may be worthwhile to drop $3/month into my Patreon, so I can afford to keep taking the time to say it.