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Designing to Spec: Support Material (Part 8)

So we’ve finished creating Starfinder versions of all the Pf Core Rulebook feats that weren’t already in Starfinder, and we’re spending this week looking at things we may want to add to Starfinder, now that we’ve added such a huge load of feats.

Adding new options to a witchwarper is almost too easy — nearly anything can be justified as access to alternate realities. To keep things interesting, here we picked one way to gain bonus feats (and have access to a wider range of options that you can use at one time), and one way to use feats to define a different power that does things the feats normally don’t.

Paradigm Shifts

[2nd Level]

Alternity (Ex): Select three feats you meet the prerequisites for. These are abilities alternate versions of you, in alternate realities, have gained. Each day as a swift action you can select one of these feats to have for the remainder of the day. If you are 6th level or higher, you can expend a Resolve Point as a swift action to change which of these feats you have access to after you have made this choice.

At each new witchwarper level, you can change what three feats you have selected for this ability.

That’ll Leave A Mark (Su): Select a Critical feat (a feat that adds a critical hit option to an attack of yours), plus one additional Critical feat for every 5 witchwarper levels you have. You do not need to meet these feat’s normal prerequisites, but you must have a caster level equal to any base attack bonus they require. You do not benefit from the Critical feat, but as a reaction when an ally within 60 feet hits a foe with an attack, you can expend one use of your alternate outcome ability to add one of your critical hit feats to that attack (in addition to its normal critical hit effects, if the attack was a critical hit).

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Designing to Spec: Support Material (Part 7)

So we’ve finished creating Starfinder versions of all the Pf Core Rulebook feats that weren’t already in Starfinder, and we’re spending this week looking at things we may want to add to Starfinder, now that we’ve added such a huge load of feats.

In addition to just giving a class access to bonus feats, and using the abilities of new feats to create new class options (as we did with the mystic support material), its possible to use new feats to define the powers of brand-new abilities. In 1st edition Pf, the cavalier and inquisitor classes are great examples of this, as both have powers that use teamwork feats in ways the feats alone don’t provide.

So with that in mind, let’s look at some new theorems for the biohacker!

Theorem

The following theorems follow the normal rules for biohacker theorems.

[2nd Level]

Heal Thyself: You gain the Self-Sufficient feat. Additionally when you use a skill, feat, or class feature to restore Hit Points or Stamina Points to yourself, you may take the points restored and divide them between your missing Hit Points and Stamina Points, even if the ability normally only restores one of those.

Multispectrum Booster: Select two feats from the following list: Acrobatic, Agile Maneuvers, Athletic, Deceitful, Deft Hands, Dodge, Endurance, Nimble Steps, Persuasive,  Stealthy. When you inject a creature with a basic booster, it gains both the normal booster benefit and your choice of the two feats you selected for the booster’s normal duration.

Alternatively you can expend a use of your booster ability to grant an injected creature both feats for a number of minutes equal to your key ability score bonus (minimum 1 minute).

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Designing to Spec: Support Material (Part 5)

So we’ve finished creating Starfinder versions of all the Pf Core Rulebook feats that weren’t already in Starfinder, and we’re spending this week looking at things we may want to add to Starfinder, now that we’ve added such a huge load of feats.

The core thing we are trying to do is make it easier for characters to access the additional feats appropriate to their character concept without that being the only thing those characters can do. Essentially an additional 130 feats is a considerable “weight” of concepts that it can be difficult for a class to access a reasonable number of. Certainly giving classes new ways to gain these feats is one way to accommodate the additional weight of concept options on a character, but there are other options. You can, for example, take some of the new options you created with feats and build them into a class feature without accessing the feats directly. This works best with classes that don’t have a good class feature to use to hand out one feat, or a small collection of feats.\

Like the mystic.

Given all the healing channel options we added with feats, it begins to seem odd that healing connection mystics, and ONLY healing connection mystics, can access this vast array of new powers. But there’s a good way to fix that — an Alternate Class Feature. Alternate class features were added to Starfinder in the Character Operations Manual, so we have a precedent.

That brings us to the channel energy alternate connection power.

Channel Energy (Su) 1st Level

You can channel mystic energy. You can spend 1 Resolve Point to channel this energy. Having the channeled energy just affect yourself is a move action, while affecting one adjacent creature is a standard action, and affecting all appropriate creatures within 30 feet is a full action. This channeled energy’s effect starts at 2d8, and increases by 2d8 at 3rd level and every 3 levels thereafter.

Your channel energy qualifies as healing channel for prerequisites, and can be modified by feats and options that modify healing channel.

You can choose one of the following channel effects.

Alignment Harm: Select one of the following alignment subtypes: chaos, evil, good, law. Your alignment cannot include any aspect of the selected subtype. When you use your channel, you can expend a mystic Spell slot of the highest level you can cast to also deal damage equal to the amount you heal to all foes in the area with the selected subtype. The foes can attempt a Will save for half damage, at your usual connection power DC.

Elemental Harm: Your channel energy deals damage equal to its effect to elemental foes (including all creatures of the elemental type) targeted. The elementals can attempt a Will save for half damage, at your usual connection power DC.

Harm Undead: Your channel energy deals damage equal to its effect to undead foes (including all creatures of the undead type) targeted. The undead can attempt a Will save for half damage, at your usual connection power DC. This qualifies as the Harm Undead feat for other prerequisites, and things that modify Harm Undead can modify this ability.

Healing: The channeled energy heals all targeted allies a number of Hit Points equal to its effect.

Special: Any connection can take Channel Energy as a replacement for it’s 1st-level power. This is normally themed in a way appropriate to the connection (the crusader connection might well take alignment harm to smite its supernatural foes) or the character (even if the empath connection has no specific link to undead, a character taking it as the priest of a god that abhors undead might well replace it’s first level power with the harm undead alternate connection power).

Of course just because something can be an alternate power of other connections doesn’t mean it can’t also be the core of it’s own connection, which we’ll explore tomorrow.

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Designing to Spec: Support Material (Part 4)

So we’ve finished creating Starfinder versions of all the Pf Core Rulebook feats that weren’t already in Starfinder, and we’re spending this week looking at things we may want to add to Starfinder, now that we’ve added such a huge load of feats.

Since the core thing we are trying to do is make it easier for classes to access appropriate feats, since we’re adding more than 120 additional feats to the game, we don’t have to restrict that access to just new feats we created. If there are feats appropriate to a class from previous rulebooks, and a game-balanced way to give them to characters as selections for class features, that can have the same benefit as just focusing on our new feats.

We can also do more than just offer up bonus feats. As a class feature, we can give options to get feats you normally wouldn’t (such as allowing ranks in a skill to substitute for base attack bonus), as long as we don’t grant feats so early the end effect is unbalanced. We can also tie the feats to other class features, to reinforce a previous class concept.

Here are some examples (one mixing old and new feats, one focusing just on pre-existing feats) for the mechanic class.

Mechanic Tricks
These mechanic tricks follow the normal rules for the mechanic trick class feature.

[2nd Level]
You may select these mechanic tricks beginning at 2nd level.

Combat Interface
Select one of the following feats: Ambuscade, Ambush Awareness, Defensive Combat Training, Dodge, Manyshot, Nimble Steps, Power Attack, Precise Shot, Spirited Charge, or Unseat.
If you have a drone, it gains the selected feat. If you have both a drone and an exocortex, at the beginning of each day you decide which has the programmed combat interface, determining if you or your drone gain the bonus feat. Otherwise, you gain the selected feat.

You may select this mechanic hack more than once. Each time, you choose a different feat.

Combat Engineer
Select one of the following feats for which you meet the prerequisites. You can use your ranks in Engineering in place of base attack bonus to fulfill the prerequisites: Adaptive Upgrade, Amplified Glitch, Barricade, Cook Grenade, Double Tap, Far Shot, Grenade Mastery, Hauler, Penetrating Attack, Pull the Pin, Ricochet Grenade.

You may select this mechanic hack more than once. Each time, you choose a different feat.

So, should we cover the rest of the classes next week, or move on to a new topic? Let me know! One great way to do that is as a comment or message through my Patreon! Like all my blog posts, this content was only possible because people joined my Patreon, helping me have the free time to write these things. 🙂

Designing to Spec: Support Material (Part 3)

So we’ve finished creating Starfinder versions of all the Pf Core Rulebook feats that weren’t already in Starfinder, and we’re spending this week looking at things we may want to add to Starfinder, now that we’ve added such a huge load of feats.

So let’s look at envoys.

Envoys are an interesting case because they don’t really try to fill a role that exists in PF. Yes, they are Charisma-based characters, and so are bards, but bards are so explicitly build as spellcasters with a single strong group area buff (bardic performance), with a strong secondary role as information sources. Envoys have no base spellcasting, and can be built with any of a wide variety of powers, only some of which are buff or information focused.

But they do clearly serve as diplomats and negotiators, and spies and field observers, 0so there’s room there for them to have an easier time picking up some of our new feats.

Envoy Improvisations

[2nd Level]

Entourage: Select Followers or Leadership. You gain the selected feat as a bonus feat.

This envoy improvisation can be taken a second time. When you do so, you gain the second feat.

Tricksy: Select Alertness or Deceitful. You gain the selected feat as a bonus feat.

This envoy improvisation can be taken a second time. When you do so, you gain the second feat.

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Designing to Spec: Support Material (Part 2)

So we’ve finished creating Starfinder versions of all the Pf Core Rulebook feats that weren’t already in Starfinder, and we’re spending this week looking at things we may want to add to Starfinder, now that we’ve added such a huge load of feats.

Technomancers already have spell hacks to help them manipulate their eldritch energies, so it’s easy to see how those might be turned toward adding some of the new feats that do the same.

Technomancer Magic Hacks

[2nd Level]

Eldritch Crafter: Select one of the following feats for which you meet the prerequisites. You gain this as a bonus feat. Brew Potion, Craft Magic Arms and Armor, Craft Rod, Craft Staff, Craft Wand, Craft Wondrous Item, Forge Ring, Scribe Scroll.

This magic hack can be taken more than once. Each time, you select a different feat from the list.

Eldritch Finesse: Select one of the following feats for which you meet the prerequisites. You gain this as a bonus feat. Empower Spell, Enlarge Spell, Extend Spell, Heighten Spell, Maximize Spell, Quicken Spell, Silent Spell, Still Spell, Widen Spell.

This magic hack can be taken more than once. Each time, you select a different feat from the list.

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Designing to Spec: Support Material (Part 1)

So now that we’re done creating Starfinder versions of all the Pf Core Rulebook feats that weren’t already in Starfinder, what’s next?

While you think about that (and tell me your thoughts!), let’s spend this week looking at things we may want to add to Starfinder, now that we’ve added such a huge load of feats.

These are going to be class features which are designed to help players who like many of the new wave of feats add them to their characters in some cases. this helps prevent Starfinder from being a game where everyone feels feat-poor as a result of the conversion work we have done.

First, let’s look at some soldier options. Soldiers already have a lot of feats and combat options, but they are also the class that is most likely to feel lacking if a player thinks there are now more feats than they can possible reasonably take (especially if those feats are important to a specific character concept).

Luckily, the soldier already has gear boosts, which are on-par power wise with feats, and we can use that as a way for a soldier to access even more of the new feats we created, or gain abilities that tie into them.

Soldier Gear Boosts

Shield Tactics [Ex] Select a feat that has proficiency with shields as a prerequisite, and for which you meet the prerequisites. You gain this as a bonus feat.

Twin Draw [Ex] When you draw or sheath weapons, you can draw or sheath one for every arm you have as part of the same action. If you have the Quick Draw feat, you can sheath a weapon and draw a new one (with each arm, if desired) as part of the same action.

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Like all my blog posts, this is brought to you by the wonderful patrons of my Patreon! Want more of this content? Want to suggest specific game systems, topics, of kinds of articles? All of that is only possible if people join my Patreon, help me have the free time to write these things, and let me know what you want to see!

 

d20 Design Diary (Part 6)

This is the sixth in my series of class-focused d20 Design Diaries. I suspect I only have a couple more posts to go on this topic, but we’ll see how the topics actually shake out (and what kind of feedback I get).

If you followed class design steps in the order I have written about them, we’ve settled on an appropriate and interesting class concept, set up the right class progression tools, made sure we are following (or at least only breaking by intent rather than by accident) the game’s style and etiquette, looked at how many options you want for each level of your class and how that impacts complexity, and discussed spell access and progression.

But we still need to talk about spell lists. Specifically, do you give your new class access to one (or more) existing spell lists, or make a brand-new spell list? And, it turns out, that.s a pretty complex question that depends very much on the game system you are using.

So, you know, let’s start by saying studying what that system does and how it handles those questions.

Also, it’s very important to know if you are building expansions classes that are in addition to a *core* set of pre-existing classes or are building a whole set of classes from scratch. Most of the advice here is directed at the former case. If you are in the latter situation, there may not even be pre-existing spell lists for you to borrow from. In that case you’ll need to make decisions about how many class lists to build from scratch, and the following advice may still be applicable to that decision.

Certainly the more you want a spell list to have a very strong theme tied to the class’s concept, the more you should consider a unique class spell list. The more you want the spell list to interact and grow well with other publisher’s content, the more you should consider using an existing class list.

In Pathfinder 1st edition, classes have access to a hodgepodge of class-specific lists, sharing class lists, and mixing class lists. The bard has its own spell list for example (though the skald later gains access to it as well), while the warpriest just has access to the cleric list (though it gets most spell levels later in its own level progression, when they are less powerful compared to the challenges being faced). Both sorcerers and wizards use the sorcerer/wizard spell list, though it has specific spells only one of the classes can take. Hunters get both druid and ranger spells (and gain access to ranger spells much earlier than rangers do, potentially making them more powerful compared to the challenges faced when you first access them), but inquisitors have a unique spell list.

Counting only official classes, no alternate classes, and only actual spell lists (as opposed to formula lists for alchemists and investigators), by the end of its run Pathfinder 1st d had 16 separate spell classes. On top of that, all of the class spell lists are defined as being arcane, divine, or occult.

In that environment, it seems insane to create a brand new unique class list. First, there are tons of lists with different themes already. Second, each of those lists has been expanded by so many supplements (official and otherwise) that any new lists is either going to fill a small book on its own, or have many fewer options than the 16 existing lists. Further, if someone is adding content from other publishers, those 3pp spells won’t even know to suggest what new spells should be on your unique class spell list.

By the same token, by the time a game has 16 unique spell lists, it’s hard to claim a 17th will be the bridge too far for design weight.

Pathfinder 2nd edition, as a counterexample, has only 4 spell lists. Absolutely every class has access to the arcane, divine, occult, or primal spell list. Some classes can pick what spell list they access based on other class features (such as the sorcerer), and many classes have access to a very small number of “focus spells” unique to their class. This includes both classes with access to a traditional spell list (such as the bards and their occult spells), and classes with no other spell access (such as champions). While it would be possible to build a whole 5th spell list (akashic magic, perhaps, or runic magic), this would likely only make sense if designing multiple classes that accessed it, or perhaps writing class variants of existing classes that accessed your new magic type. However, adding a small number of focus spells to any new spellcasting class, but otherwise tying them to one or more of the 4 existing lists, seems an excellent way to both benefit from that class having unique and flavorful spells of its own (new focus spells) and benefiting from ties to a growing standard spell list that other books and companies can expand. Pathfinfer 2nd ed also has things such as spell rarity which could be used to create “new” spell list options (such as creating a magister class that has access to common spells for multiple lists, but can never gain uncommon or rare spells).

By contrast Starfinder goes the opposite route, and give every spellcaster their own unique spell list.

Starfinder only has 3 official spellcasting classes so far of course, and each also has the same level of spell access and spells/day. That certainly sets an expectation for players that a class focused on spellcasting would likely follow the same path. There are many potential reasons to not go that route (if creating a mechanic/technomancer hybrid class, the Dronemancer, that only had access up to 3rd level spells, it might well make sense for it to have the technomancer spell list), but again the key point is to know what tools are at your disposal, and study how the core game (or similar games, if you are starting from scratch) use them.

Dungeons & Dragons 5th ed also gives each class its own spell list (at least in the Player’s handbook), including the sorcerer and wizard, who shared a spell list when the sorcerer was first introduced in 3rd edition. There is greater variety in both spell access (paladins and rangers only get up to 5th level spells), and how the class uses spells (warlocks and wizards have very different game mechanics dictation how they interact with and use their spells). The larger number of lists makes it more likely that you can match a specific class’s theme with an existing class list or combination of lists, but it also drives home player expectation in much the same way Starfinder does.

As a final note, it’s worth mentioning that whether a game has dozens of class spell lists or just three, d20 games almost always have some basic spells that appear on multiple (or even all) spell lists. the most flavorless and utilitarian spells are often there, from detect magic to light. By the same token, most such games have at least a few types of spells that are kept off specific spell lists, in the tradition of “clerics don’t cast magic missile, wizards don’t heal.”

But honestly, that’s another whole blog post worth of commentary.

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Developing to Spec: Part 22d (The Last PF Core Feats)

This is the fourth section of Part 22 of a series of articles looking at creating a set of Starfinder feats under specific constraints.  You can go back and read previous entries where we converted every feat in the PF core rulebook to Starfinder (and  I shared my thoughts on that process, as a developer and writer)— or you can just look at the finished feats here.

This is it. The very last feats from the PF Core Rulebook that did not exist in Starfinder. This has been my longest ongoing blog series ever. I’m almost sad.

Almost.

But, let’s get to them, shall we? We begin with Unseat.

A confession. Having played hundreds (in all honesty, maybe thousands) of sessions of Pf and the games that came before it, I have never seen Unseat be used, or even taken by a character, even once.

It’s a super-specific jousting feat. Yo have to be mounted to use it. And attacking with a lance (and only with a lance). And your target has to be mounted. AND you have to charge to use it. And if you hit, you can TRY a bull rush to unseat the target.

That’s so many rules I’d be inclined to just add them to what a lance can do without needing a feat for it. Plus, does this mean that without this feat, I can’t use trip or bull rush to take a mounted foe out of their saddle? Or only that I can’t do it as part of a charge attack with a lance?

But we HAVE to make a Starfinder version, so:

UNSEAT (Combat)
You can rip foes from the mounts and vehicles.
Benefit: When a foe that is mounted or in a vehicle provokes an attack of opportunity from you, you can make a bull rush or trip combat maneuver instead of a melee attack. If you succeed, you pull the target off their mount or out of their vehicle, and leave them prone in an adjacent space.

I’m still not sure how often that’ll come up, but at least knocking folks off their motorcycle has genre-emulation value.

Next up is Weapon Finesse. Which, like so many PF feats, requires things (like a definition of “light weapons”) that Starfinder doesn’t have to allow something (switching some melee weapons from Strength to Dexterity) Starfinder isn’t designed to allow. In fact Starfinder already essentially decided that light weapons are “operative weapons,” and anyone can use their Dexterity to attack with them, and no other weapons should be allowed to do that under any circumstances.

But there is one thing that Starfinder’s system could allow for — some way for operatives to make trick attacks with different weapons than normal. Not to be more effective (operatives are FINE on the power scale), but to support different character concepts and variable tactical styles.

WEAPON FINESSE (Combat)
You can use bulkier, slower weapons to place attacks with additional effects.
Prerequisites: Trick attack class feature.
Benefit: You can use any weapon to deliver a trick attack. When you do so with a non-operative melee weapon, you may choose to use your Dexterity modifier, rather than Strength modifier to add to your attack bonus. You can only apply the trick attack to a single creature, regardless of how many the attack affects, and must make the appropriate skill check. For that one trick attack, you deal either just your trick attack damage +1 per operative level (with its damage type determined by the weapon), or you do the weapon’s damage without any bonus from your trick attack. In either case, you can apply any other effect your trick attack imposes onto the target you trick attack.

There are things this does, and things it does not do. It won’t increase any character’s single-target damage-per round output, and that’s intentional. It also won’t allow a solarian (for example) to ignore all Strength in favor of Dexterity, and that’s intentional. It is of most use to operatives who want increased flexibility. You may not do any more damage to one target when you deliver a trick attack with a grenade, but you still get the rest of the effect of a grenade. making unarmed attacks as trick attacks won’t bust your damage curve, but it’s a lot better than normal trick attacks if you’ve been disarmed.

Okay, last one.

Whirlwind Attack

Whirlwind Attack is a PF feat that normally comes in at mid- to high-level play that has 7 prerequisites (though a fighter could theoretically meet them all by 4th level), that allows you to make one melee attack against every target within reach. Again, a chunk of that is balanced by the fact that in PF, a good chunk of your Damage Per Round (DPR) is based on making more attacks each round. In Starfinder, your DPR increase is much more strongly tied to each attack doing more damage, so getting to make a single attack against a large number of foes is much more powerful.

We could probably do something with forcing you to take the full attack -4 to your attack rolls, and then maybe another -2 or so… so it’s only useful against lower-level foes, and even then you won’t hit all of them, so if you connect with one or two your DPR is reasonable…

But wow that doesn’t sound like fun or satisfying as a player. Let’s try something else.

WHIRLWIND ATTACK (Combat)
You can surround yourself with lighting-fast, shallow strikes.
Benefit: When you use the full-attack action, you can give up all your other attacks and instead make one melee attack against each opponent within reach. Make a single attack roll, and apply it to the AC of every target in reach. Roll damage once, and apply half the value to every target you hit.

That’s easy to access, it lets you do a little damage to a lot of foes (which is closer to how Whirlwind Attack generally works in Pf anyway), has a much better change of doing SOME damage to multiple targets. If you want to lay about and put a hurt on a lot of people up close this works, even if you won’t be able to pile nearly as much on any one target.

AND THAT’S IT!

What comes next? Who knows! Let me know your thoughts, over at my Patreon, or as a comment here, or at my email, Twitter, or Facebook!

PATREON
Like all my blog posts, this is brought to you by the wonderful patrons of my Patreon! Want more of this content? Want to suggest specific game systems, topics, of kinds of articles? All of that is only possible if people join my Patreon, help me have the free time to write these things, and let me know what you want to see!

Developing to Spec: Part 22c (Two-Weapon Feats)

This is the third section of Part 22 of a series of articles looking at creating a set of Starfinder feats under specific constraints.  You can read along as we convert every feat in the PF core rulebook to Starfinder (and  share my thoughts on that process, as a developer and writer)— or you can just look at the finished feats (as they are written, and I have time over the holidays to update the list) here.

We have come to the last couple of two-weapon related feats; Two-Weapon Defense and Two-Weapon Rend. It would have made sense to write these back when we were writing the base Two-Weapon Fighting feat and it’s follow-up feats, but since we were only checking all the prerequisites for Greater Two-Weapon Fighting, and didn’t check to see if there were any more thematically-linked feats (such as Double Slice, or today’s examples), it didn’t come up.

So, Two-Weapon Defense is a combat feat that grants bonuses to AC. We’ve made major changes to every one of those we’ve run into on this project and for Two-Weapon Fighting we need to adjust:

Not a darn thing.

Seriously. With the advent of shield bonuses being defined in COM, Two-Weapon Defense works perfectly as-written. Even the prerequisites are reasonable. We can just add it to the game as-is. (If it makes sense and ain’t broke, don’t adjust it). We could require the two weapons to be melee weapons (although PF didn’t–apparently twin hand crossbows is fine), but the visual of the two-pistol character blazing away to give themselves cover fire is too cool to restrict even if it makes slightly less logical sense.

TWO-WEAPON DEFENSE (Combat)
You are skilled at defending yourself while dual-wielding.
Prerequisites: Dex 15, Two-Weapon Fighting.
Benefit: When wielding a double weapon or two weapons (not including natural weapons or unarmed strikes), you gain a +1 shield bonus to your AC.
When you are fighting defensively or using the total defense action, this shield bonus increases to +2.

And that bring us to Two-Weapon Rend which… does need change. I’ve never been convinced the PF version of Two-Weapon Rend was balanced. At first glance it looks like just a little bonus damage, but later FAQs made it clear that it also benefits from damage bonuses that apply to both attacks that trigger it (such as Power attack and potentially sneak attack) but not things that specifically are weapon damage bonuses (such as weapon enhancement bonuses and spells such as divine favor. Which means it is far, far more powerful for cavaliers, paladins, and rogues than for most other classes.

Any damage bonus is always problematic with Starfinder feats, especially those that won’t really have a drawback for a large portion of characters. While it’s nice for being multi-armed being useful, we don’t want a feat to radically change that usefulness if that calculation wasn’t considered in creating the core rulebook.

Luckily the feat’s name says you “rend,” not “do extra damage” so there are other options.

TWO-WEAPON REND (Combat)
You can make the intersection of damage from different weapons hurt.
Prerequisites: Dex 15, Two-Weapon Fighting.
Benefit: When you hit and damage the same target with attacks from two or more weapons in the same round, it must attempt a Fortitude save (DC 10 +1/2 your base attack bonus +your key ability score modifier). If it fails, it is sickened for 1 round for ever 5 item levels of the lower-level of the weapons (minimum 1 round). This is a pain effect.

Now, why did we say it was a pain effect?

Pain IS one of the descriptors Starfinder lists in the core rulebook. Pain effects note “Creatures that are immune to effects that require a Fortitude save are immune to pain effects.” It doesn’t come up that often, but it also helps explain why rending someone causes a sickened effect, so it’s worth the extra wordage.

Okay, that just leaves three feats, all of which we’ll tackle tomorrow.

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